|Other titles||Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977.|
|LC Classifications||KF27 .I518 1977j|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||4 v. :|
|LC Control Number||77603316|
Surface mining comprises different practices À strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop-removal mining À and accounts for more than 80% of ore mined each year (Ramani, ). Surface mining. serious environmental problems with surface disturbance and stream pollution. Placer mining is used to e xploit loosely consolidat ed deposits like common sand and gravel or gravels containing. The Surface Mining Act placed a levy per ton on all coal produced in the USA. This fund can be used to finance the restoration of areas that were not reclaimed in the past and other action needed to alleviate off-site impacts of the unreclaimed areas. From a new consideration has been given to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. The book focuses on the factors and considerations involved in the interrelation of ecology and coal resource development. The selection first tackles the U.S. coal development policy, coal's response to the challenge in the national energy plan, coal utilization and supply, and the role of the Office of Surface Mining on combining energy and.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.. Surface mining began in the mid-sixteenth . The Appalachian region of the eastern USA is extensively forested, Appalachian forests are a globally significant ecological resource and provide economic and environmental benefits for area residents. However, the region contains extensive coal reserves, and the progressive loss of forest vegetation due to mining is of concern to area citizens, natural . The environmental damage caused by surface mining is related to the large amount of surface material that humans remove during mining operations. The environmental effects of surface mining include Habitat destruction Soil erosion Air pollution from dust particulates Pollution (especially from sediments) All surface mining techniques negatively affect the environment, . Land reclamation, the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a more intensive use. Reclamation efforts may be concerned with the improvement of rainfall-deficient areas by irrigation, the removal of detrimental constituents from salty or alkali lands, the diking and draining of tidal marshes, the smoothing and revegetation of.
Reclamation processes. As part of the life cycle of a surface coal mine, completed mine areas must undergo mining ends, operators must restore the land to its approximate original contour (AOC) or leave the land graded and suitable for a “higher and better” post-mining land use (PMLU) that has been approved as part of the original mining permit application. book review A Review of: “ Environmental Management in the Australian Minerals and Energy Industries: Principles and Practices () ”: Edited by David R. Mulligan, University of New South Wales Press Sydney, Australia in association with Australian Minerals and . Some, but not all, of the more responsible mining companies began reclamation along with their surface mining activities. In the s and s, individual states enacted regulations to improve control of surface mining, and more land per year now is being reclaimed than is disturbed. But the federal Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) estimates $ billion in AML work is left to do nationwide, and the fee expires in